Httpd virtual hosts

I wanted to manage a couple of web sites, let's call them one.dd and two.dd, with my Apache Web Server, and I wanted them to live on the same machine, sharing the same IP address. We know that to do that in the real life, I could not choose randomly a fancy name, like I have just said, but I have to register a proper name under well known limitations. But if I play just on my local machine(s), I can forget about that, and being free and foolish. Still I have to follow a few basic rules.

I am working on a Debian box, on a Apache httpd 2.2 built from scratch, downloading the package from the official Apache site. I reckon you can adapt very easily what I have done to your current setup.

Setting the hosts

The operating system should be aware of the names I want to use on the current machine. This is done in a text file, typically (for *x environments) named /etc/hosts. There we see, among the other things, the standard mapping between and localhost, and we are about to extend it to add our two host names: localhost one.dd two.dd
Setting the httpd configuration

Apache has to know how to manage our virtual hosts, too. The standard http configuration file, conf/httpd.conf, has a commented line that, when activated, includes the specific configuration file for virtual hosts.
# Virtual hosts
#Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
It is usually considered a better idea to let the provided example alone, and work on a different file.

This is my virtual host configuration file:
# Virtual Hosts
NameVirtualHost *

<VirtualHost *>
    DocumentRoot /site/www/one.dd

<VirtualHost *>
    DocumentRoot /site/www/two.dd
    ServerName www.two.dd
I guess this is the simplest configuration file one could conceive.

The directive NameVirtualHost says to Apache that we want to attach one or more virtual hosts to the specified address/port. Here I passed a star to it, meaning "anything you get to this point". Usually you want to be more choosy. Besides, I didn't specify any port number. In this case, Apache assumes I expect it to use the one specified in the Listen directive.

Then I have a VirtualHost block for each host I want to define. If anything not matching with the ServerName's specified is getting here, the first one is considered as the default one.

The DocumentRoot says to Apache which directory to use as root for the site. I have created the specified document root directories, and put in both of them an index.html file.

Looks easy, doesn't it? Still, even at this basic level, there are a few thing that could go wrong. And the resulting error messages could look cryptical.


If NameVirtualHost is not matching with any VirtualHost (a different port number is enough) Apache doesn't know what to do of that directive, and a "NameVirtualHost has no VirtualHosts" warning is issued at startup.

I have already noted that if the NameVirtualHost port is not explicitly given, the one specified in the Listen directive is used. But you should ensure to keep the same convention for the associated VirtualHost, too. Otherwise you could get a "VirtualHost mixing * ports and non-* ports with a NameVirtualHost address is not supported, proceeding with undefined results".

Go to the full post

Iterating over an Apache apr_table_t

A common data structure that is very useful to have at hand when working with a web server, is an associative array where both key and value are strings. If Apache httpd was developed in C++, they would have probably used an STL unordered_map, but here we are dealing with pure C, so an internal data structure named apr_table_t has been designed expressly for this scope, with a bunch of associated functions for manage it.

Here I am going to write an example that uses apr_table_do() to loop over all the elements in an Apache table.

What I want to do is writing an Apache2 module that generates as output an HTML page listing all the properties in the request header.

If we have a look to the apr_tables.h, we'll find this couple of interesting lines:
typedef int (apr_table_do_callback_fn_t)(
    void* rec, const char* key, const char* value);

int apr_table_do(apr_table_do_callback_fn_t* comp,
    void* rec, const apr_table_t* t, ...);
The apr_table_do() gets as first parameter a callback function, then the module request record, and the Apache table we want to loop on. Finally we specify which tables elements we are interested in, or a NULL if we want to go through all of them.

Here is the function I want to use as callback, a simple output of the current key-value pair:
int print(void* rec, const char* key, const char* value)
    request_rec* r = static_cast<request_rec*>(rec); // 1
    ap_rprintf(r, "%s: %s<br />\n", key, value); // 2

    return 1; // 3
1. Tiny nuisance, the request_rec is seen by the callback prototype as a void pointer - to allow more flexibility, I reckon - so we need to cast it back to its original type. I was about to check the cast result, but in the end I decided that was a bit too paranoid for such a basic example.
2. Dump the pair to the HTML response that the module is generating.
3. And finally return a non-zero value, to mean success.

In the handler, I'll have something like:
int handler(request_rec* r)
    // ...
    apr_table_do(print, r, r->headers_in, NULL);

    // ...
    return OK;
The full C++ source code is on github. You should compile it, possibly using a make file like the one showed in the previous post, and make the resulting shared object available to Apache.

In the httpd configuration file, we should explain to Apache how to map a request to the server to a call for our module, and how to load the module:
<Location /info>
    SetHandler info

# ...

LoadModule info_module modules/
And what it is left to do, to have the new module available, it is just stop and start your Apache server.

Go to the full post

Makefile for C++ Apache module

The Apache web server (AKA httpd, or just Apache) is written in C language, but this is not a compelling reason for us to write our modules in the same language. And, as you could expect, it is pretty easy to use the C++ language instead.

Converting the minimal Hello World and the simple example from C to C++ (actually g++ 4.4.5 on Linux Debian for Apache 2.2) took a minimal effort.

What I had to do was adding an explicit include directive for http_protocol.h, to let the less forgiving C++ compiler to properly check against a few functions. Not doing it was leading to these errors:
error: ‘ap_set_content_type’ was not declared in this scope
error: ‘ap_rputs’ was not declared in this scope
error: ‘ap_rprintf’ was not declared in this scope
Besides, I also removed the static specification for all the local function, and put them instead in an unnamed namespace.

Finally I wrote this Makefile:

mod_hello.o : mod_hello.cpp
    g++ -c -I/path/to/apache22/include -fPIC mod_hello.cpp : mod_hello.o
    g++ -shared -o mod_hello.o

    rm -rf mod_hello.o
To build the object I called g++ with a few options:
-c because I don't want it to run the linker, its output should be the object file.
-I to specify the apache include directory (put there your actual one).
-fPIC is due to the fact that we are about to create a shared object, so we need g++ to generate position-independent code.

The actual generation of the shared object is accomplished by second call to g++, this time specifying as options:
-shared to let it know that a shared object is what we want.
-o to specify the output file name.

Remember that in a Makefile you should put TAB and only TAB (no white spaces at all!), if you don't want to get a puzzling error like this:
Makefile:6: *** missing separator.  Stop.

Go to the full post